1 Enoch (Ethiopic) Parallel Translations

SECTION III.
CHAPTERS LXXII-LXXXII. THE BOOK OF THE HEAVENLY LUMINARIES.

Charles < < Chapter LXXII / Chapter 71 > > Laurence

LXXII. THE SUN.

LXXII

1The book of the courses of the luminaries of the heaven, the relations of each, according to their classes, their dominion and their seasons, according to their names and places of origin, and according to their months, which Uriel, the holy angel, who was with me, who is their guide, showed me; and he showed me all their laws exactly as they are, and how it is with regard to all the years of the world 2and unto eternity, till the new creation is accomplished which dureth till eternity. And this is the first law of the luminaries: the luminary the Sun has its rising in the eastern portals of the heaven, 3and its setting in the western portals of the heaven. And I saw six portals in which the sun rises, and six portals in which the sun sets and the moon rises and sets in these portals, and the leaders of the stars and those whom they lead: six in the east and six in the west, and all following each other 4in accurately corresponding order: also many windows to the right and left of these portals. And first there goes forth the great luminary, named the Sun, and his circumference is like the 5circumference of the heaven, and he is quite filled with illuminating and heating fire. The chariot on which he ascends, the wind drives, and the sun goes down from the heaven and returns through the north in order to reach the east, and is so guided that he comes to the appropriate [lit. 'that'] portal and 6shines in the face of the heaven. In this way he rises in the first month in the great portal, which 7is the fourth {those six portals in the cast}. And in that fourth portal from which the sun rises in the first month are twelve window-openings, from which proceed a flame when they are opened in 8their season. When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty, 9mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven. And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth 10morning. On that day the day is longer than the night by a ninth part, and the day amounts exactly to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun rises from that fourth portal, and sets in the fourth and returns to the fifth portal of the east thirty mornings, and rises from it and sets in the fifth 12portal. And then the day becomes longer by two parts and amounts to eleven parts, and the night 13becomes shorter and amounts to seven parts. And it returns to the east and enters into the sixth 14portal, and rises and sets in the sixth portal one-and-thirty mornings on account of its sign. On that day the day becomes longer than the night, and the day becomes double the night, and the day 15becomes twelve parts, and the night is shortened and becomes six parts. And the sun mounts up to make the day shorter and the night longer, and the sun returns to the east and enters into the 16sixth portal, and rises from it and sets thirty mornings. And when thirty mornings are accomplished, 17the day decreases by exactly one part, and becomes eleven parts, and the night seven. And the sun goes forth from that sixth portal in the west, and goes to the east and rises in the fifth portal for 18thirty mornings, and sets in the west again in the fifth western portal. On that day the day decreases by two parts, and amounts to ten parts and the night to eight parts. And the sun goes forth from that fifth portal and sets in the fifth portal of the west, and rises in the fourth portal for one- 20and-thirty mornings on account of its sign, and sets in the west. On that day the day is equalized with the night, {and becomes of equal length}, and the night amounts to nine parts and the day to 21nine parts. And the sun rises from that portal and sets in the west, and returns to the east and rises 22thirty mornings in the third portal and sets in the west in the third portal. And on that day the night becomes longer than the day, and night becomes longer than night, and day shorter than day till the thirtieth morning, and the night amounts exactly to ten parts and the day to eight 23parts. And the sun rises from that third portal and sets in the third portal in the west and returns to the east, and for thirty mornings rises 24in the second portal in the east, and in like manner sets in the second portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night amounts to eleven 25parts and the day to seven parts. And the sun rises on that day from that second portal and sets in the west in the second portal, and returns to the east into the first portal for one-and-thirty 26mornings, and sets in the first portal in the west of the heaven. And on that day the night becomes longer and amounts to the double of the day: and the night amounts exactly to twelve parts and 27the day to six. And the sun has [therewith] traversed the divisions of his orbit and turns again on those divisions of his orbit, and enters that portal thirty mornings and sets also in the west 28opposite to it. And on that night has the night decreased in length by a ninth part, and the night 29has become eleven parts and the day seven parts. And the sun has returned and entered into the second portal in the east, and returns on those his divisions of his orbit for thirty mornings, rising 30and setting. And on that day the night decreases in length, and the night amounts to ten parts 31and the day to eight. And on that day the sun rises from that portal, and sets in the west, and returns to the east, and rises in the third portal for one-and-thirty mornings, and sets in the west of the heaven. 32On that day the night decreases and amounts to nine parts, and the day to nine parts, and the night 33is equal to the day and the year is exactly as to its days three hundred and sixty-four. And the length of the day and of the night, and the shortness of the day and of the night arise-through the course 34of the sun these distinctions are made [lit. 'they are separated']. So it comes that its course becomes 35daily longer, and its course nightly shorter. And this is the law and the course of the sun, and his return as often as he returns sixty times and rises, i.e. the great luminary which is named the sun, 36for ever and ever. And that which [thus] rises is the great luminary, and is so named according to 37its appearance, according as the Lord commanded. As he rises, so he sets and decreases not, and rests not, but runs day and night, and his light is sevenfold brighter than that of the moon; but as regards size they are both equal.

 

71

71:1 The book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, according to their respective classes, their respective powers, their respective periods, their respective names, the places where they commence their progress, and their respective months, which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me, explained to me; he who conducted them. The whole account of them, according to every year of the world for ever, until a new work shall be effected, which will be eternal.

71:2 This is the first law of the luminaries. The sun [and] the light arrive at the gates of heaven, which are on the east, and on the west of it at the western gates of heaven.

71:3 I beheld the gates whence the sun goes forth; and the gates where the sun sets;

71:4 In which gates also the moon rises and sets; and [I beheld] the conductors of the stars, among those who precede them; six [gates were] at the rising, and six at the setting of the sun.

71:5 All these respectively, one after another, are on a level; and numerous windows are on the right and on the left sides of those gates.

71:6 First proceeds forth that great luminary, which is called the sun; the orb of which is as the orb of heaven, the whole of it being replete with splendid and flaming fire.

71:7 Its chariot, where it ascends, the wind blows.

71:8 The sun sets in heaven, and, returning by the north, to proceed towards the east, is conducted so as to enter by that gate, and illuminate the face of heaven.

71:9 In the same manner it goes forth in the first month by the great gate.

71:10 It goes forth through the fourth of those six gates, which are at the rising of the sun.

71:11 And in the fourth gate, through which the sun with the moon proceeds, in the first part of it, (76) there are twelve open windows; from which issues out a flame, when they are opened in their proper periods.

(76) Through which…part of it. Or, "from which the sun rises in the first month" (Knibb, p. 168).

71:12 When the sun rises in heaven, it goes forth through this fourth gate thirty days, and by the fourth gate in the west of heaven on a level with it descends.

71:13 During that period the day is lengthened from the day, and the night curtailed from the night for thirty days. And then the day is longer by two parts than the night.

71:14 The day is precisely ten parts, and the night is eight.

71:15 The sun goes forth through this fourth gate, and sets in it, and turns to the fifth gate during thirty days; after which it proceeds from, and sets in, the fifth gate.

71:16 Then the day becomes lengthened by a second portion, so that it is eleven parts: while the night becomes shortened, and is only seven parts.

71:17 The sun [now] returns to the east, entering into the sixth gate, and rising and setting in the sixth gate thirty-one days, on account of its signs.

71:18 At that period the day is longer than the night, being twice [as long as] the night; and become twelve parts;

71:19 But the night is shortened, and becomes six parts. Then the sun rises up, that the day may be shortened, and the night lengthened.

71:20 And the sun returns toward the east entering into the sixth gate, where it rises and sets for thirty days.

71:21 When that period is completed, the day becomes shortened precisely one part, so that it is eleven parts, while the night is seven parts.

71:22 Then the sun goes from the west, from that sixth gate, and proceeds eastwards, rising in the fifth gate for thirty days, and setting again westwards in the fifth gate of the west.

71:23 At that period the day becomes shortened two parts; and is ten parts, while the night is eight parts.

71:24 Then the sun goes from the fifth gate, as it sets in the fifth gate of the west; and rises in the fourth gate for thirty-one days, on account of its signs, setting in the west.

71:25 At that period the day is made equal with the night; and, being equal with it, the night becomes nine parts, and the day nine parts.

71:26 Then the sun goes from that gate, as it sets in the west; and returning to the east proceeds by the third gate for thirty days, setting in the west at the third gate.

71:27 At that period the night is lengthened from the day during thirty mornings, and the day is curtailed from the day during thirty days; the night being ten parts precisely, and the day eight parts.

71:28 The sun now goes from the third gate, as it sets in the third gate in the west; but returning to the east, it proceeds by the second gate of the east for thirty days.

71:29 In like manner also it sets in the second gate in the west of heaven.

71:30 At that period the night is eleven parts, and the day seven parts.

71:31 Then the sun goes at that time from the second gate, as it sets in the second gate in the west; but returns to the east, [proceeding] by the first gate, for thirty-one days.

71:32 And sets in the west in the first gate.

71:33 At that period that night is lengthened as much again as the day.

71:34 It is twelve parts precisely, while the day is six parts.

71:35 The sun has [thus] completed its beginnings, and a second time goes round from these beginnings.

71:36 Into that [first] gate it enters for thirty days, and sets in the west, in the opposite part [of heaven].

71:37 At that period the night is contracted in its length a fourth part, that is, one portion, and becomes eleven parts.

71:38 The day is seven parts.

71:39 Then the sun returns, and enters into the second gate of the east.

71:40 It returns by these beginnings thirty days, rising and setting.

71:41 At that period the night is contracted in its length. It becomes ten parts, and the day eight parts. Then the sun goes from that second gate, and sets in the west; but returns to the east, and rises in the east, in the third gate, thirty-one days, setting in the west of heaven.

71:42 At that period the night becomes shortened. It is nine parts. And the night is equal with the day. The year is precisely three hundred and sixty-four days.

71:43 The lengthening of the day and night, and the contraction of the day and night, are made to differ from each other by the progress of the sun.

71:44 By means of this progress the day is daily lengthened, and the night greatly shortened.

71:45 This is the law and progress of the sun, and its turning when it turns back, turning during sixty days, (77) and going forth. This is the great everlasting luminary, that which he names the sun for ever and ever.

(77) That is, it is sixty days in the same gates, viz. Thirty days twice every year (Laurence, p. 97).

71:46 This also is that which goes forth a great luminary, and which is named after its peculiar kind, as God commanded.

71:47 And thus it goes in and out, neither slackening nor resting; but running on in its chariot by day and by night. It shines with a seventh portion of light from the moon; (78) but the dimensions of both are equal.

(78) It shines with…from the moon. Or, "Its light is seven times brighter than that of the moon" (Knibb, p. 171). The Aramaic texts more clearly describe how the moon's light waxes and wanes by a half of a seventh part each day. Here in the Ethiopic version, the moon is thought of as two halves, each half being divided into seven parts. Hence, the "fourteen portions" of 72:9-10 (Knibb, p. 171).


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